Jedi must be aware of all the different kind of weapons there are, so that they can learn to defend against them.

A metal blade attached to the side of a pole of any size. Can be thrown or held and swung.
Defenses: Due to time taken to chamber back for the swing, you can determine where it is going and potentialy dodge it. Can be blocked with sword or sheild.
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There are many kinds of bombs of all sizes. A small bomb can be used to damage or kill a person, or open a door by destroying a lock. Then of course there are big bombs that can level a whole building. The biggest known bombs are the hydrogen and atomic bombs, which can level a whole city, and if atomic, leave radiation covering a great area many times the size of the blast radius.
Defenses: None, other then knowing it coming ahead of time and getting out, or knowing where it is (if not an artillary bomb) and dissabling it (if expertise is had).

This has the advantage of relatively long range and quiet (stealthy) operation. Obsolete as a mass use weapon but still useful in stealthy covert operations. For such operations a complex compound bow may be used that includes special sighting devices. A modern crossbow may be used for the same tasks. The crossbow may be used where Bow and Arrow are appropriate. It is especially suitable for use by less skilled or weaker weaponry and in confined spaces. This became an effective medium range weapon for use against metal plate personal armor. Also used in massive numbers as an area defense weapon in the protection of fortifications, propelling short arrows called bolts or fletchettes (fr. "little arrows"). In this use it was not aimed at a specific target but sent on a high, arcing path into masses of opponents. The crossbow is obsolete as a mass use weapon but is still used by some hunters, usually during special seasons that prohibit firearms. It is also an effective stealth weapon for special operations, though of limited range.
Defenses: Using a shield, although that can often be penetrated at short to medium range, hiding behind a manmade or natural formation, or estimating where it will land, and running from it (not reccomended).
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The flamethrower propels a burning stream of flammable fluid. Primarily used against occupied fortifications. Can be used also to to smoke enemies out of hiding. There are many ways to improvise to make a flame thrower but for safety reasons I am not going to provide the information.
Defenses: If fluid already in an area, then a fire extinguisher. Also, asbestos lined full body protection (not easy to obtain).

Grenades are similar to small bombs but grenades are handheld and need to have the pin pulled to activate the detonation sequence. Hand grenades are thrown. A soldier will typically carry two or more of these. A fuse with several second's delay is activated when the weapon is released.
Fragmentation type- An explosive charge is contained within a rigid shell scored so that it breaks into small fragments propelled at high speed. This increases the effective radius of the weapon. The standard U.S. military M67 fragmentation grenade kill radius is 5 meters, wounding radius 15 meters and danger radius up to 150 meters.
Concussion type- An explosive charge is intended to shock with a concussive pressure wave, potentially with lethal effect. The limited effective range offers greater safety to the person employing this weapon, although that person has limited opportunity to shelter from fragments.
Flash type- A grenade with a low probability of lethality, this makes a loud report with moderate concussive force and a bright flash and does not throw shrapnel. It is intended to shock, temporarily blind and deafen, and disorient persons in a confined space so that they may be overcome and restrained. Typically used by SWAT teams in police units and in commando operations attempting a live capture for subsequent interrogation.
Defenses: If shrapnel or flash, then getting behind natural or manmade landform. If concussion or explosive, getting out of imidiate vicinity as quickly as possible and getting behind landform.

Guns can be both small and portable or large and stationary. They are not easily carried through modern security but do have the advantages that other weapons don't. The downside to guns is that if your goal is to not kill then this weapon is not the best choice. Serious training is needed in using this weapon, and without proper training the liability of killing the person and/or hurting yourself is greatly increased. Easily concealed in non security areas, they are a dangerous weapon to go against.
Defenses: Kevlar, and some martial arts techniques that can disarm the person of the gun without getting hurt. Do NOT attempt said techniques unless you have been trained by a professional. Also, getting behind obstacle if deemed safe to do so.

Kamas are weapons based off the tools used in feudal Japan to harvest the crops but were then turned into a weapon which most Japanese students of martial arts are trained in. They have a curved blade connected to a handle about the same size. These are a cutting weapon, but can be used to knock away swords and other large weapons as well. They are less a slashing weapon, then a ripping weapon, becuase if one hacks with them, they are liable to get stuck because of their design.
Defenses: Sci, Arm protection.
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Used where stealth is required or as a last resort. It is mainly used as a stabbing or slashing weapon. The knife is used to inflict damage on an opponent by penetrating the body and destroying or damaging function. Vital organs may be destroyed or blood vessels may be severed causing degradation of function due to loss of blood and possibly death from the attack.
Defenses: Never try to run away from the knife, you may get stabbed by the possibly faster adversary and it can also be thrown. Instead find ways to dodge it while grabbing the adversary where you can not get hurt to gain control of the situation safely.

The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. While most could still be classified as spears, lances tend to be larger; usually both longer and heavier, lances did not have spear tips that broke off and were adapted for mounted combat. The lance is perhaps most known as one of the foremost weapons used by European knights, but the use of the lance was spread throughout the old world wherever mounts were available. Generally, a spear which is not thrown is called a lance. Because of the extreme stopping power of a lance it quickly became a popular weapon of footmen as the footman's lance. These eventually lead to the rise of some of the longest types of spears ever, the pike and awl pike. During the 15th through 17th centuries, these weapons of war were so effective that lancers and pike-men not only became a staple of every army, they also became highly sought after mercenaries.
Defenses: Although you are unlikely to encounter them in the traditional sence, the best way to defend against such a weapon is to dodge it and grab it, then by controling it, you can overcome the enemy.

Mace and pepper spray are somewhat common. Women seem to carry it as a defense against those select men who they don't like but won't go away. This stuff burns your eyes so don't get sprayed. Older people also carry it, old ladies use it as a defense from getting mugged. Cops in some areas use it still to apprehend criminals.
Defenses: The best way to defend against it is to sheild your eyes.

Missiles are a very advanced weapon. They can be plain missiles or they can be loaded with nuclear weapons, or other explosives. They can be air to air, ground to ground, air to ground, ground to air. These can affect many people over a wide area or many people in a small confined area.
Defenses: See bombs

The nunchaku is a swinging weapon that requires a lot of practice and expertise to master and actually use. Without training, you'll just end up hurting yourself. Try striking a heavy bag with a pair of nunchakus and see what happens. You'll probably have it swinging right back at you striking you where it hurts most. Nunchakus (also known as "nunchucks") were used because they could be adapted for many situations. Aside from being easy to carry, the nunchakus were used to defend against most any weapon from a bo to a sword. By trapping the blade of a sword with the chain between the two sticks, a Ninja could entangle and disarm a sword-wielding attacker. The same concept applies to almost every other weapon. The nunchakus were not just used for defense; they could also be effectively employed against an enemy in an offensive way. The Ninja could strangle an opponent or even execute joint locks with the chain or cord between the two sticks.
Defenses: Do not attempt to dodge them, they have a wide range. Do not block them empty handed either, attempt to use a pole or an on hand thing you can use as a weapon to entangle it, and either keep it occupied or disarm them.

Sais are a weapon with 3 metal prongs. They can be spun around by using the grooves between the prongs. The handle can be used as a pummeling end and the prongs can be used to catch other weapons in between them. The prongs themselves are of course also a weapon. They are often used for stabbing, and a traditional use was to carry three, two for the hands, and one for throwing. The throwing one could be used to stab a person's foot to the ground, and then you would draw your extra sai and take them out.
Defenses: Items that can be used as a sheild are best, dodging is also a good way to defend against them.

The term spear means a staff with one sharp end, the end is either made from stone or metal of some kind. It is a shorter version of the lance and can be used for throwing and for stabbing in battle. It has a good range and its long pole can be used as a blocking tool as well. Older asian versions had red-dyed horse tail at the end that could be waved in an opponents face to distract them.
Defenses: Spears are faster then lances, and can slash as well as stab. They are best defended against with a Bo staff or anything that you can use as a sword in a pinch.

Long poles, usually the height of the person wielding them. They can be used to hit you with either end, and can be spun around to hit many quickly. It also can be used to block all kinds of other wooden weapons or dull swords.
Defenses: The best way to defend against one of these is with either a sword, or another staff.

Swords are the origins of what will one day be the lightsaber. Some consider this weapon obsolete but many still use it. It is a melee weapon and in the hand of the right swordsman can cause great damage to a person or many people. Swords can be used to block other weapons or deflect them. When two swordsmen are slashing at each other and blocking each others blows it is called a duel. There are many different kinds of swords, some are one handed while others are two handed. One handed swords like the Rapier have two sharp sides to its blade, while two handed swords like the Katana have one side sharp and the other is used for deflecting. For a long time after the sword (times of the gun), a sword was worn by those in the service to represent a high ranking officer.
Defenses: Few, save with another weapon such as the Sci, the Nun Chukau, or a metal Bo.

Throwing stars are also known as shurikens. They are used by the ninja and samurai mostly. They are small metal discs with points on their edges. They are thrown in a spinning motion to slice and stab an adversary.
Defenses: Mainly either to have protective armour or get behind a manmade or natural landform and if you have a projectile weapon to return fire.

Tonfas are used along with many martial arts techniques. They rest along the arms to deflect blows from other weapons. They can be spun out using the handle to hit people. And the handle itself can be used as a kind of hook when you hold it from the side section. They can really be effective when someone has 2 of them.
Defenses: Can be defended against empty handed, but it is not recommened. Best defended against with a sword, or staff.

Really pretty much anything can be trurned into a weapon, so you must be aware of that too. A broken bottle, a fork, fishing line, a cup of hot water, etc...
Defenses: It majorly depends on the improvised weapon being used against you, but with them you will have to be as creative as your attackers.

(Page by Jedi Knight Adam & Master Mi-Zhe Fu, Defenses added by Ian Mundi)